What Is Dubbing?


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The Dubbing King software caters for various Audio-Visual Translation (AVT) modes. It is used for subtitling, translation and the dubbing processes.


What is dubbing in film-making?

Dubbing, mixing, or re-recording is a post-production process used in film-making and video production in which additional or supplementary recordings are “mixed” with original production sound to create the finished soundtrack.

What Exactly Does Dubbing Involve?

  • When a video is dubbed, a cast of professional voice actors replace its original dialogue with a new audio track in a different language.  So a movie shot in one language has that language’s dialogue replaced with actors speaking in a localized language.
  • Dubbing is most familiar to audiences as a means of translating foreign-language films into the audience’s language. When a foreign language is dubbed, the translation of the original dialogue is carefully matched to the lip movements of the actors in the film. The process usually takes place on a dub stage. After this sound editors edit and prepare all the necessary tracks – dialogue, music, and sound effects. Dubbing mixers proceed to balance all of the elements and record the finished soundtrack.
  • In some instances, movies intended for foreign distribution are prepared in a version with an M&E (music and effects) track separate from the dialogue to facilitate dubbing. Today, dubbing enables the screening of audiovisual material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the performers in the original production.
  • In francophone Africa for example, most foreign movies (especially Hollywood productions) are shown dubbed in French. These movies are usually imported directly from French film distributors. The choice of movies dubbed into French can be explained by the history of colonization of these countries by France and the widespread use of the French language (among the intellectual elite).

What is The Dubbing Process?

The dubbing process can be divided into 4 major stages, that is, transcription, translation, dubbing and finally the mixing process. 

Transcription and Time-coding

  • A video master is sent to the localization provider, including a script, the video, and an M&E. The provider should clarify the technical specs required for the master elements. The script is then time-coded. A time-code is a series of numbers generated in a controlled sequence by a timing system. In videos and other recorded media, time-code can be added to a recording in order to facilitate logging, synchronization. If you don’t have a script, the provider will transcribe the dialogue. Transcription can simply be defined as the transformation of spoken dialogue in a video into written text. A dubbing stem script is created. It is analyzed frame-by-frame, with every pause in the dialogue; taking into account tonal inflections and general tenor to ensure the nuance of the performance is transmitted to the translators.

Translation

  • Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. A low-resolution reference file of your video and master script are sent to the target-language team who may reside in-house but often work off-site. Specialized translators then work with the dubbing script to translate it and adapt it by matching the length of each line of dialogue to the original script. Expert localization providers use algorithms to count the syllables of the script in the original language. This is key for the adaptation of the translated script to the exact timing and tempo of the original language recording. This is especially important for precise lip-syncing. Voice-casting usually occurs while translators tackle the script. (For more on translation, check out this in-depth article on what is translation …).

Dubbing

  • Dubbing is recorded by professional voice actors and the audio track of the original video footage is mixed with the alternate language recordings of the dialogue.  Word choice is extremely important as the translated video must be synchronized with the lip movement of the actors on-screen. Following the thorough preparation of the script, the voice talent and directors go into the recording studio. Directors work closely with translators, they guide the actors to tonal, intonation, linguistic accuracy and expressive excellence. Quality control editors then work with the dialogue in the target language to ensure the lip-syncing to the video is accurate and well-timed. In some instances, selective technical adjustments are made to imperceptibly slow down or speed up the video in order to improve upon the lip-sync of the dub. This will ensure that the actors’ voice-over recordings match the mouth movements exactly. It takes patience and a meticulous eye but will make all the difference in the final product.

Mixing

  • Sound engineers create a mix that incorporates the Music & Effect tracks to the original video. Quality Control editors then come again to work with the mixed product in the target language to ensure that everything is up to required standards if not the mix is sent back to the mixers for rectification. (For More On Mixing, Check out this in-depth article on what re-recording (dubbing) mixers do in film production…).

Complete article on [the technical process of dubbing…]


Where dubbing has been successful?

  • In non-English speaking nations, dubbing is most commonly used in films produced for children and, in some cases, young adults. Children’s programs on television also tend to be dubbed, as are commercials, although these are not limited to being targeted towards a younger audience only. The Walt Disney Studios Post Production Services, for example, has a rich history in Dubbing dating back to the early 1940s when Fantasia was mixed in the Main Theater. Fantasia went on to win several technical achievement awards from the Academy.
  • Telenovelas – A telenovela is a type of a limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced primarily in Latin America. Commonly described as Spanish soap opera, many telenovelas share some stylistic and thematic similarities to the soap opera familiar to the English-speaking world. In the 2000s, Latin America and Asia altogether emerged as the biggest producers of telenovelas, which evolved out from soap operas to form another category of television drama and were one of the most common forms of popular entertainment in the world.
  • The Indian film industry or Bollywood as the Hindi movie-making machinery is popularly known, has been an interesting case study – not just for movie fans but also for the business world. It has managed to transition across cultures and countries and reach almost every part of the world with very little formal (if any) marketing. 

What is The future of dubbing?

  • Thanks to the boom in popularity of digital channels and internet streaming services for film, TV, and video, content owners are seeing more opportunities than ever to sell new titles and back catalog feature films and TV series in new territories. This has led to a growing demand for content localization across the world. What’s more, this is set to grow by as the years go by.

Dubbing and artificial intelligence

  • How A.I. will disrupt the dubbing industry? I understand that the ideas hereby presented aren’t as easy to produce as they sound, but I believe they are doable in the mid-term future.
    • Translating the movie script (using AI, why not?). Today’s translation services are pretty good, but they will continue to evolve to perfection.
    • Mimicking the actor’s voices and pronouncing the words of the translated script. This happens using the voices of the actors from the original audio to train an algorithm to mimic their voice and feed the translated script to the new voice to obtain the translated audio track.
    • Synchronizing the video to suit the new audio better. This includes generating extra frames to adjust the length of the speech in different languages and using deep-fake video technology algorithms already existent to sync the lips of the actors to the new track.

What are some interesting facts to know about dubbing?

  • The Germanophone dubbing market is the largest in Europe. Dubbing films is a traditional and common practice in German-speaking countries. 
  • In Spain, some dubbing actors have achieved great popularity for their voices. For example Constantino Romero (who dubs Clint Eastwood, Darth Vader, and Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Terminator, among others). 

Conclusion

  • As you see, dubbing is a process that requires much more work and resources. It is not simply a matter of trying to constrain your translation to words per second or to channel the information being said into a condensed textual version. Dubbing is particularly difficult to pull off for actors and translators alike because every line of speech must closely mimic the mouth movements of the actors on the screen. Some languages expand in translation. Greek or German speakers, for example, tend to use more words than their counterparts who speak other languages. This means translators must choose words precisely in order to carry over the same meaning as the original without altering the length of each character’s screen-time.
  • In summary, issues to note about dubbing are:
    • Dubbing includes the addition of music and sound effects to the original dialogue.
    • Dubbing includes the omission or replacement of unwanted or poorly recorded audio.
    • Dubbing includes the re-recording of the entire dialogue, narration, and music.
    • Dubbing is considered successful when it can coordinate the actor’s lips movements with the sounds produced by the dubber, especially those sounds that make use of the lips.
    • The script needs to be adapted accurately into the target language to make sure that the dialog shares the same linguistic meaning.
    • Dubbing should convey the same emotional impact, thanks to voice artists who must also be skilled actors.

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